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VOCs廢氣處理技術中三劍客
2020-04-21 11:22:48 shuanhe

VOCs廢氣處理技術中三劍客

催化燃燒廢氣處理裝置

主要是利用焚燒爐在催化劑的作用下將有機廢氣進行燃燒或氧化轉化為水和CO2,適用于漆包線、機械、電機、化工、儀表、汽車、發動機、塑料、電器等行業的有機廢氣凈化。

催化燃燒由于起燃溫度低,是一種較為理想的通過催化反應(無明火)處理有機污染物的方法,具有適用范圍廣、結構簡單、凈化效率高、節能、無二次污染等優點,已在國內外得到了廣泛應用。我公司研發的催化燃燒凈化裝置具有操作簡單、自動化程序高、能有效地處理各種有機廢氣污染物,處理濃度<=10g/m3,深受廣大客戶的歡迎。催化燃燒處理技術結構及原理:催化燃燒凈化裝置主要由阻火器、熱交換器、催化反應床、風機這幾個主要部件組成,與直接燃燒相比,催化燃燒溫度較低,燃燒比較完全。催化燃燒所用的催化劑為具有大比表面的貴金屬和金屬氧化物。催化燃燒法是將有機污染物的廢氣、催化劑在催化劑鉑、鈀等催化劑的作用下,可以在較低溫度下將廢氣中的有機污染物氧化成二氧化碳和水。

廢氣經阻火器過濾后,通過主進閥、旁通閥的同步反向切換調節進入熱交換器,熱交換器的熱氣升高一定溫度后進入預熱室、經過預熱室的加熱使廢氣升溫到催化起燃溫度(250度)然后進入催化反應床,在催化劑的活性作用下,有機廢氣進行氧化反應生成無害的水和二氧化碳,并放出一定的熱量。反應后的高溫氣體再次進入熱交換器,經換熱后,最后以較低的溫度經引風機排入大氣。催化燃燒是借助催化劑在低溫下(200-400度)實現對有機物的完全氧化,因此,操作簡單、安全、凈化效率高,在有機廢氣特別是回收價值大的有機廢氣凈化等領域應用廣泛。

不同的排放場所和不同的廢氣,有不同的催化燃燒廢氣處理工藝流程。但無論采取哪種工藝流程,都由如下工藝單元組成:

廢氣預處理---預熱裝置---催化燃燒裝置。

催化燃燒性能特點

1、用優質金屬鉑、鈀鍍在蜂窩陶瓷載體上作為催化劑、凈化效率高達97-99%,設備壽命長、且可再生、氣體流淌阻力??;

2、安全設施完備:阻火除塵器、泄壓孔、超溫報警等保護設施齊全;

3、預熱15-30分鐘全功率加熱。工作時只消耗電機功率即可,當廢氣濃度較低時,自動間歇補償加熱;

4、余熱可以返回烘道用來烘干工作,降低原烘道中消耗功率;也可供工廠其它方面熱能回用

催化燃燒處理注意事項

1、廢氣成分中,不能含有下列物質;有高粘性的油脂類。如磷、鉍、砷、銻、汞、鉛、錫;高濃度的粉塵;

2、設備選型時,注明廢氣的成分、濃度及出口溫度;

3、設備安裝場所無腐蝕性氣體,并有良好的防雨措施;

4、設備所需電源為:三相交流380V頻率50Hz;

催化燃燒適用范圍

1、用于有機溶劑的凈化處理如:苯類、醇類、酯類、酚類、醚類、烷類等混合性有機廢氣;

2、適用于漆包線、機械、電機、化工、儀表、汽車、發動機、塑料、電器等行業的有機廢氣凈化;

3、適用于各種烘道、印刷油墨、電機絕緣處理等烘干流水線等。

低溫等離子廢氣處理設備的技術機理

等離子體去除惡臭是通過兩個途徑實現的:一個是在高能電子的瞬間是高能量作用下,打開某些有害氣體分子的化學鍵,使其直接分解成單質原子或無害分子;另一個是在大量高能電子、離子、激發態粒子和氧自由基、氫氧自由基(自由基因帶有不成對電子而具有很強的活性)等作用下的氧化分解成無害產物。主要有下面幾個過程:

1、在高能電子作用下,強氧化性自由基O、OH、OH2的產生;

2、有機物分子受到高能電子碰撞被激發,及原子鍵斷裂形成小碎片基團和原子;

3、O、OH、HO2與激發原子、有機物分子、廢氣處理公司破碎的基團、其他自由基等發生一系列反應,有機物分子最終被氧化降解為CO、CO2、H2O。去除率的高低與電子能量和有機物分子結合鍵能的大小有關。

從除臭機理上分析,主要發生以下反應:

H2O+O2、O2-、O2+——SO3+H2O

NH3+O2、O2-、O2+——NOx+H2O

H2S去除率可達91.9%,NH3去除率可達93.4%,臭氣濃度去除率可達93.6%。

從上述反應來看,惡臭組分經過處理后,轉變為NOx、SO2、CO2、H2O等小分子,在一定的濃度下,各種反應的轉化率均在95%以上,而且惡臭濃度較低,因此產物的濃度極低,均能被周邊的大氣所接受。

吸附法已廣泛應用于凈化室內空氣、大氣污染治理、石油化工等領域VOCs的回收處理。它分為固定床吸附法、流動床吸附法和濃縮輪吸附法。其原理是利用具有密集的細孔結構、內表面積比較大的粒狀活性炭、炭纖維、硅膠、人工沸石等吸附劑的多孔結構,將VOCs組分吸附在固體表面,利用吸附劑不斷吸附、脫附的循環,達到凈化回收目的。研究表明,活性炭吸附VOCs性能最佳。吸附劑吸附VOCs的效果除與吸附劑本身性質有關外還與VOCs的種類、濃度、性質以及吸附系統的溫度、壓力有關,一般來說吸附劑對VOCs的吸附能力隨氣體分子量的增加而增加,低分壓的氣體比高分壓氣體更易吸附。

吸附法適用于中低濃度、高通量VOCs的回收,它具有去除效率高、凈化徹底、能耗低、工藝成熟、易于推廣使用等優點,表現出良好的環境和經濟效益。缺點是吸附劑的容量小,需要的吸附劑量大,設備龐大;吸附后的吸附劑不僅需要定期再生處理和更換,而且在此過程中,VOCs有散逸的風險;由于全過程的復雜性,費用相對較高。

活性炭纖維是以有機化合物纖維(如聚丙烯、酚醛樹脂、聚乙烯醇等)為基本原料經特殊加工制成的。它是一種很細的纖維狀物質,具有巨大的比表面積、外表面積和非常發達的微孔結構,纖維上有很多微孔可以直接與有機物接觸而不是像顆?;钚蕴磕菢右韧ㄟ^大孔、過渡孔,才能到達微孔,因此,活性炭纖維更易于吸附低濃度的VOCs。與顆?;钚蕴肯啾?其吸附有機物的能力高出115~210倍,吸附速度也快3倍左右。由于活性炭纖維的吸附能力強,故吸附裝置可以小型化,吸附劑的用量也可以少些,降低處理費用?;钚蕴坷w維VOCs回收裝置以活性炭纖維(ACF)作為吸收劑,處理各類工廠或設備排放的含有有機溶劑(VOCs)的廢氣,將其中的VOCs變成液體進行分離,并進行回收再利用。

活性炭吸附箱在處理廢氣過程中相對較安全,適用范圍也很廣,多數用在化工廠,塑料廠,醫藥廠,噴漆房等。

活性炭吸附箱原理

由于活性炭吸附劑表面上存在著未平衡和未飽和的分子引力或化學鍵力,當廢氣由風機提供動力,負壓進入吸附箱后進入活性炭吸附層,因此當活性炭吸附劑的表面與氣體接觸時,就能吸引氣體分子,使其濃聚并保持在活性炭表面,此現象稱為吸附。利用活性炭吸附劑表面的吸附能力,使廢氣與大氣表面的多孔性活性炭吸附劑相接觸,廢氣中的污染物被吸附在活性炭表面上,使其與氣體混合物分離,凈化后的氣體高空排放?;钚蕴课较涫且环N干式廢氣處理設備,由箱體和填裝在箱體內的吸附單元組成。

活性炭吸附箱性能特點:

1、全密閉型,室內外皆可使用。

2、吸附效率高,能力強;

3、采用自動化控制運轉設計,操作簡易、安全;

4、能夠同時處理多種混合有機廢氣;凈化效率≥95%;

5、設備構造緊湊,占地面積小,維護管理簡單,運轉成本低廉;

Incinerator is mainly used to burn or oxidize the organic waste gas to water and CO2 under the action of catalyst. It is suitable for purifying the organic waste gas of enameled wire, machinery, motor, chemical industry, instrument, automobile, engine, plastic, electric appliance and so on.
Catalytic combustion is an ideal method for treating organic pollutants through catalytic reaction (no open flame) due to its low light-off temperature. It has the advantages of wide application range, simple structure, high purification efficiency, energy saving and no secondary pollution, etc., and has been widely used at home and abroad. Our catalytic combustion purification unit is easy to operate, highly automated, and can effectively treat all kinds of organic waste gas pollutants with concentration < = 10g/m3, which is well received by customers. Structure and Principle of Catalytic Combustion Treatment Technology: Catalytic Combustion Purification Unit is mainly composed of flame arrester, heat exchanger, catalytic reaction bed and fan. The catalysts used for catalytic combustion are noble metals and metal oxides with high specific surface area. The catalytic combustion process is to oxidize the organic pollutants into carbon dioxide and water under the action of the catalysts such as platinum and palladium.
After the waste gas is filtered by the flame arrester, it enters the heat exchanger through the synchronous reverse switching regulation of the main inlet valve and the bypass valve, and the hot gas of the heat exchanger rises to a certain temperature and then enters the preheating chamber, through the heating of the preheating chamber, the waste gas is heated to the catalytic ignition temperature (250 degrees) and then enters the catalytic reaction bed. Under the active action of the catalyst, the organic waste gas carries out oxidation reaction to produce harmless water and carbon dioxide, and gives off certain heat. After the reaction, the high temperature gas enters the heat exchanger again. After heat exchange, it is discharged into the atmosphere by the induced draft fan at a lower temperature. Catalytic combustion is a complete oxidation of organic matter with catalyst at low temperature (200-400 ℃). Therefore, it is easy to operate, safe and efficient to purify the organic waste gas.
Different emission sites and different waste gas, there are different catalytic combustion of waste gas treatment process. However, whichever process is adopted, it consists of the following process units:
Waste Gas Pretreatment - Preheating Unit - Catalytic Combustion Unit.
Characteristics of catalytic combustion
1、 Using high-quality platinum and palladium plating on honeycomb ceramic carrier as catalyst, the purification efficiency is up to 97-99%, the equipment has long service life, can be regenerated and the gas flow resistance is small;
2、 Complete safety facilities: complete fire and dust remover, pressure relief holes, over-temperature alarm and other protection facilities;
3、 Preheating 15- 30 minutes full power heating. Only the power of motor is consumed when working. When the concentration of waste gas is low, automatic intermittent compensation heating;
4、 The waste heat can be returned to the drying path for drying work to reduce the power consumption in the original drying path; it can also be used for the reuse of heat energy in other aspects of the factory.
Considerations for catalytic combustion treatment
1、 Waste gas components shall not contain the following substances; there shall be oils and fats with high viscosity. Such as phosphorus, bismuth, arsenic, antimony, mercury, lead, tin; high concentration of dust;
2、 When selecting equipment, the composition, concentration and outlet temperature of waste gas shall be indicated;
3、 The installation place of equipment shall be free from corrosive gas, and shall have good rainproof measures;
4、 The power supply required by the equipment shall be: 380v frequency of three-phase AC 50Hz;
Range of catalytic combustion
1、 Purification treatment of organic solvents such as mixed organic waste gas such as benzene, alcohol, ester, phenol, ether, alkane, etc.;
2、 It is applicable to the purification of organic waste gas in enameled wires, machinery, motors, chemicals, meters, automobiles, engines, plastics, electrical appliances and other industries;
3、 Applicable to all kinds of drying lines, printing ink, motor insulation processing and other drying lines.
Technical mechanism of low-temperature plasma waste gas treatment equipment:
Plasma deodorization is achieved through two ways: one is to open the chemical bonds of some harmful gas molecules under the action of high-energy electrons at the moment of high-energy electrons, so that they can be directly decomposed into simple atoms or harmless molecules; the other is to be decomposed into harmless products by oxidation under the action of a large number of high-energy electrons, ions, excited particles and oxygen free radicals, hydroxyl free radicals (free genes with unpaired electrons and strong activity). The main processes are as follows:
1、 Generation of strong oxidative free radicals O, OH and OH2 under the action of high-energy electrons;
2、 Organic molecules are excited by high-energy electron collisions and the atomic bonds are broken to form small fragmented groups and atoms;
3、 O、 OH、 HO2 react with excited atoms, organic molecules, broken groups of waste gas treatment companies and other free radicals, and organic molecules are oxidized and degraded to CO、 CO2、 H2O. The removal rate is related to the electron energy and the binding bond energy of organic molecules.
According to the analysis of deodorization mechanism, the following reactions mainly occur:
H2O O2, O2 -, O2 + - SO3 + H2O
NH3 O2, O2 -, O2 + - - NOx + H2O
The removal rates of H2S, NH3 and odor were 91.9%, 93.4% and 93.6%, respectively.
In a certain concentration, the conversion rate of each reaction is above 95%, and the concentration of malodor is lower. Therefore, the concentration of the product is very low, and can be accepted by the surrounding atmosphere.
Adsorption method has been widely used in purification of indoor air, air pollution treatment, petrochemical and other fields VOCs recovery treatment. It can be divided into fixed bed adsorption method, mobile bed adsorption method and concentration wheel adsorption method. The principle is to use the porous structure of granular activated carbon, carbon fiber, silica gel, artificial zeolite and other adsorbents with dense fine pore structure and large internal surface area to adsorb the VOCs components on the solid surface, and to achieve the goal of purification and recovery by the continuous adsorption and desorption of adsorbents. The results showed that the adsorption of VOCs by activated carbon was the best. In general, the adsorption capacity of adsorbent to VOCs increases with the increase of the molecular weight of the gas, and the gas with low pressure is easier to be adsorbed than that with high pressure.
Adsorption method is suitable for the recovery of low concentration and high flux VOCs. It has the advantages of high removal efficiency, complete purification, low energy consumption, mature process and easy to popularize. The disadvantage is that the capacity of the adsorbent is small, the adsorption dose needed is large, and the equipment is large. The adsorbent after adsorption not only needs to be regenerated and replaced regularly, but also in the process,



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